Selasa, 03 April 2012

Tenses


Oleh: ADE KURNIA


PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
 AND
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Dalam bahasa Inggris, time (waktu) sangat erat hubunganya dengan tense (perubahan kata kerja). Lain halnya dengan bahasa Indonesia, maka dalam bahasa Inggris time (waktu) turut mempengaruhi bentuk verb (kata kerja). Di bawah ini dibahas Present Perfect Continuous Tense dan Future Perfect Tense.
1.             Present Perfect Continuous Tense (waktu selesai sedang)
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang telah dlakukan di waktu lampau dan perbuatan tersebut masih terus berlangsung sampai sekarang dan kemungkinan akan terus berlangsung sampai masa akan datang. Pada umumnya tense ini penggunaannya hampir sama dengan Present Perfect Tense.
Structure:
Subject + have/has been + verb-ing form

Examples:
a.       (+)    I have been living here for seven years.
(-)     I have not been living here for seven years.
(?)    Have I been living here for seven years?
                        Yes, I have. / No, I have not.
b.      (+)    She has been waiting for John since early in the morning.
(-)     She has not been waiting for John since early in the morning.
(?)    Has she been waiting for John since early in the morning?
        Yes, she has. / No, she has not.
c.       (+)    Mary has been studying French for two years.
(-)     Mary has been studying French for two years.
(?)    Has Mary been studying French for two years?
               Yes, Mary has. / No, Mary has not.
How long ....? (Berapa lama ....?)
How long digunakan dalam Present Perfect Continuous Tense dan Present Perfect Tense untuk menanyakan sudah berapa lama suatu kejadian berlangsung.
Examples:
a.       How long have you been staying in Jakarta?
I have been staying in Jakarta for seven months.
b.      How long has he studied music?
He has studied music since 1981 up to now.
c.       How long has your father been sailing?
My father has been sailing for more than ten years.
d.      How long have you been sick?
I have been sick for two weeks.
e.       How long have they been discussing the matter?
They have been discussing the matter all day long.

How long juga digunakan dalam Simple Past Tense untuk menanyakan lamanya suatu peristiwa berlangsung di masa lampau tanpa adanay hubungan dengan masa sekarang. Perhatikan contoh percakapan di bawah ini:
X : “Last year I visited Bali.”
Y : “How long did you stay there?”
X : “I stayed there for two weeks.”
 

Text Analysis
Teaching English by Using Songs
When teaching any language a lot of activities are valid and using songs is not the exception. Songs can be used for different purposes in a class though (to learn something related to grammar, vocabulary, rhythm, intonation or pronunciation and even just to chill out and have some fun with your students). Teaching songs it should not be taken as a method to teach the language but as a teaching tool. Songs contain a lot of pieces of language that are used every day.  Also, you may want to make sure that the language is appropriate and check the song in advance.

a.             Vocabularies
Valid = sah
Exception = pengecualian
Purpose = maksud, tujuan
Though = lebih dulu, meskipun, walaupun
Grammar = tata bahasa
Vocabulary = kosa kata
Rhythm = irama
Intonation = intonasi, nada suara
Pronunciation = pelafalan, pengucapan
Even = rata, datar, tetap, mantap, seri, genap, lengkap, tenang, lurus, sejajar, sama, lunas.
Chill out = tenang, rileks
Appropriate = tepat, cocok
Advance = kemajuan, tingkat lanjut
b.            Phonetic Transcriptions
when = .................................................
teaching = .................................................
any = .................................................
language = .................................................
a = .................................................
lot = .................................................
of = .................................................
activities = .................................................
are = .................................................
valid = .................................................
and = .................................................
using = .................................................
songs = .................................................
is = .................................................
not = .................................................
the = .................................................
exception = .................................................
can = .................................................
be = .................................................
used = .................................................
for = .................................................
different = .................................................
purposes = .................................................
in = .................................................
class = .................................................
though = .................................................
to = .................................................
learn = .................................................
something = ...............................................
related = .................................................
grammar = .................................................
every = .................................................
day = .................................................
also = .................................................
you = .................................................
may = .................................................
want = .................................................
vocabulary = ...............................................
rhythm = .................................................
intonation = .................................................
or = .................................................
pronunciation = ...........................................
even = .................................................
just = .................................................
chill = .................................................
out = .................................................
have = .................................................
some = .................................................
fun = .................................................
with = .................................................
your = .................................................
students = .................................................
it = .................................................
should = .................................................
not = .................................................
taken = .................................................
as = .................................................
method = .................................................
teach = .................................................
language = .................................................
but = .................................................
tool = .................................................
contain = .................................................
pieces = .................................................
that = .................................................
are = .................................................
sure = .................................................
used = .................................................
make = .................................................
appropriate = ...............................................
check = .................................................
he = .................................................
in = .................................................
advance = .................................................

2.             Future Perfect Tense (waktu akan datang selesai)
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian/perbuatan yang telah selesai di masa akan datang ketika suatu kejadian lain terjadi.
Misalnya:
When you come tomorrow I shall have finished that work.
(Ketika kamu datang besok saya telah menyelesaikan pekerjaan itu.)
Sama halnya dengan Future Continuous, peristiwa yang terjadi kemudian dinyatakan dalam Simple Present Tense.
Structure:
Subject + shall/will + have + verb 3rd form

Example:
a.       When mother comes home tomorrow, I shall have made a dress.
b.      When you finish this course, you will have learnt a lot of English.
c.       When father returns this afternoon, mother will have cooked lunch.
d.      By next week my sister will have finished her examination.
 

Text Analysis
One morning, trucks are coming to the empty house across the street. It seems that a new family is moving into the house. John and Mary can see the father, the mother, the daughter and the baby. Since the family is going to be their new neighbor, John and Mary greet and welcome them.

a.             Vocabularies
Across = di seberang
Seem = tampaknya
Move = pindah, gerak
Into = ke dalam
Since = sejak
Neighbor = tetangga

b.            Phonetic Transcriptions
one = ..........................................................
morning = ...................................................
trucks = ......................................................
are = ...........................................................
coming = ....................................................
to = .............................................................
the = ...........................................................
empty = ......................................................
house = .......................................................
across = ......................................................
street = ........................................................
it = ..............................................................
seems = ......................................................
that = ..........................................................
a = ..............................................................
new = .........................................................
family = ......................................................
is = ..............................................................
moving = ....................................................
into = ..........................................................
house = .......................................................
john = .........................................................
and = ..........................................................
mary = ........................................................
can = ...........................................................
see = ...........................................................
father = .......................................................
mother = .....................................................
daughter = ..................................................
baby = ........................................................
since = ........................................................
going = .......................................................
be = ............................................................
their = .........................................................
neighbor = ..................................................
greet = ........................................................
welcome = ..................................................
them = ........................................................

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