Selasa, 03 April 2012

Sociolinguistics


ADE KURNIA

LINGUISTIC VARIETIES AND MULTILINGUAL NATIONS

Over half the world’s population is bilingual and many people are multilingual. They acquire a number of languages because they need them for different purpose in their everyday interaction. Example: like Balinese people have many languages or “logat” to talk with other Balinese people. And they know about another language like Indonesian language English language and so on.  So the Balinese people have multiple languages. The selection of discussion about:
A.          Vernacular Languages
The term vernacular is used in numbers of ways. It generally refers to a language which has not been standardized and which does not have official status. Vernacular are usually the first language learned by people in multilingual language communities, and they are often used for a relatively narrow range of informal functions.
Example:
Like a children are talking with their friends used informal language from his places.
1.            The first language learned by people in multilingual communities.
2.            The variety used for communication in the home and with close friends.
3.            Simply means a language which is not an official language in a particular contest.
(Hebrew → Vernacularisation)
Example: Hebrew
   In the Past
Now
1.      No native speakers
2.      No parental tongue
1.      Vernacularisation
2.      The national language of Israel

B.           Standard Language
The term standard is even more slippery then vernacular because it too is used in many deferent ways by linguists. Here is one definition which can serve as a useful starting point. A standard variety is generally one which is written, and which has undergone some degree of regularization or codification it is recognized as a prestigious variety by a community.
Example:
Human in their places use standard language in their places.
1.             Recognized as a prestigious variety or code by a community.
2.             Generally is written, and has undergone some degree of regularization or codification.
3.             The most useful and widely used as an official language or the national language.
(Example: Standard English)

C.          Standard English
1.             Originally, a regional English dialect.
2.             In 15th, widely used in the Court and the influential merchants of London.
3.             Two universities, Oxford and Cambridge, used it for literature or politics.
4.             London has become the hub of international trade and export.

D.          Lingua Franca
A lingua franca is a language used for a communication between people whose first languages differ. Between the Colombians Indians, Tukano is the main lingua franca, and it can be used with Indians who live in the Vaupes area of the North West Amazon on both side of border between Colombia and brazil.
Example:
Like in Bali, many people want to talk with other people use Balinese language.

1.            Eventually displace the vernacular.
2.            A simplified speech used for communication between people with different languages.
3.            Serves as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual speech community.

E.           The Development of Pidgin And Creole
1.             Pidgins
Most people have a predictable reaction to pidgin languages. They find them amusing. If you read children story in variety of Pidgin English, it is easy to understand why it sounds a lot like baby talk. But even if we take a serious article from the news paper, many speakers of English still find pidgin languages humorous or babyish.
a.       Why do pidgins develop?
A pidgin is a language which has no native speakers. Pidgins develop as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. So a pidgin is no one’s native language. Pidgins seem particularly likely to arise when two groups with different languages are communication in a situation where there is also third dominant language.
Example:
Like People from Kintamani talk with someone from Gianyar in the street their pronunciation will be different.

b.      What kind of linguistic structure does a Pidgin language have?
Example:
I have a friend. He is from Kayuambua. He his high Balinese and his brother married with Kristen people and his brother Balinese people. She is can speak high Balinese language with other people because everyday in the “griya” all people there used high Balinese language when he or she speaking. So, she is can speak high Balinese language because that situation each day.

Pidgin languages are created from the combined efforts of people who speak different languages. All languages involved may contribute to the sounds, the vocabulary, and the grammatical features, but to different extents, and some additional features may emerge which are unique to the new variety.

c.       Attitudes
Example:
Like someone long time stay in the foreign to work there and suddenly his or her return to the village and someone ask that people with high Balinese language and he or she said “punapi gatrene?” And he or she can’t give the answer and that people didn’t understand  with the meaning of the question because he or she  often used English language in the foreign so, that someone forget will mother language self when he or she return to the village again.



To sum up, a pidgin language has three identifying characteristics:
1)          It is used in restricted domains and functions,
2)          It has a simplified structure compared to the source languages,
3)          It generally has low prestige and attracts negative attitudes, especially from outsiders.

2.             Creoles
A creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers. Many of the languages which are called pidgins are in fact now creole languages. They are learned by children as their first language and used in a wide range of domains.
Example:
Like Balinese children talk with her mother in the house she or he used low Balinese language when he or she want request something to her mother. Example: that children request money to her mother to pay book in the school.

a.       Structural Features
Example:
(a)
Andi membuat sebuah surat                  
He makes a letter                     
Present Tense
(b)
Andi membuat sebuah surat                  
He made a letter                                  
Past Tense
(c)
Andi sedang membuat sebuah surat      
He is making a letter                
Present Continuous
(d)
Andi sedang membuat sebuah surat      
He was making a letter            
Past Continuous

The linguistic complexity of creole languages is often not appreciated by outsider. I mentioned above that pidgin languages do not use affixes to signal meanings such as the tense of a verb or the number of a noun.

b.      Attitudes
Though outsider’ attitudes to creoles are often as negative as their attitudes to pidgins, this is not always the case for those who speak the language.



c.       Origins and endings
Example:
Like from Batur said something used Balinese language with someone in the street and she or he said bee “kar ije” and that someone confuse with the meaning of bee, then that people from Batur explain if the sentence bee that and bee in the sentence has the meaning you (kamu).

The Development of Pidgin and Creole


 














References:
An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Ronald Wardhaugh)



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